A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to identify isotype 1 β-tubulin locus SNPs in synthetic double-stranded Haemonchus contortus DNA
Development of sustainable gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control strategies depends on the ability to identify the frequencies of drug-susceptible and resistant genotypes in GIN populations arising from management practices undertaken on individual farms. Resistance to BZ drugs in GINs has been shown to be conferred by the presence of defined SNPs in the isotype 1 β-tubulin locus. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays are amenable to use on a range of DNA templates and are potentially adaptable to use in practical, cost-effective, pen-side diagnostic platforms that are needed to detect anthelmintic resistance in the field. In this study, we designed primers and examined LAMP assays to detect each of the three major isotype 1 β-tubulin SNPs conferring genetic susceptibility to BZ drugs. We used artificial pools of synthetic DNA, containing different proportions of susceptible and resistant SNPs to determine reproducibility of the assays. We demonstrated the detection of each of the isotype 1 β-tubulin SNPs conferring susceptibility to BZ drugs using the optimal LAMP assay. Isotype 1 β-tubulin SNP typing was effective in detecting BZ susceptibility, but the accuracy was reduced in samples with less than 60 % susceptible DNA. Our results show the potential for LAMP SNP typing to detect genetic susceptibility or resistance to anthelmintic drugs in livestock GINs, and some of the limitations in our approach that will need to be overcome in order to evaluate this assay using field samples.